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You CAN eradicate canine genetic problems such as heart, eyes, VWD and correct structural defects including luxating patellas, elbow or hip dysplasia while preserving breed type.




Genetic Problems Easily Corrected

Deborah Hays, AKC Show Breeder


Correct Phenotype and reproducible Genotype means knowing how to read pedigrees, predict inheritable factors, and which characteristics are genetic or environmental.


After reading all of the discussion on CHG in the Toy Fox Terrier.... I am glad s informing people of this condition, as I am a firm believer in eradication of ALL hereditary conditions. However, I wish that people would worry as much about the genetic condition of ii luxating patellas, which (according to a 2 year research study on health problems in the TFT, was presented to the membership of the National Toy Fox Terrier Association in August of 2000 as a significant problem in the TFT.


"Slipping patellas" are found in most breeds, even the (Miniature) Italian Greyhound shown below.  In the year 2000, I purchased three Toy Fox Terriers from reputable show breeders; ALL 3 ended up either being returned to their most unhappy breeders, or removed from the gene pool....... Not only was this very sad for me to have to give up these dogs but it was hard on the dogs, as well.  It was very expensive for me to find this out the hard way - after showing some of these dogs to their championship!!!  Now, 2 of my friends who had purchased their TFTs in 2001 (and showed these dogs to their championships as well) have found out that THEIR dogs, also have bad patellas, and are now struggling with how to afford the surgery (it costs nearly $1,000.00 per leg!), or whether or not to return these dogs to their breeders. How sad that anyone should have to even make this decision! I have been fussing about patellas since 1999, when I lost my first dog to the condition. At that time, people told me I was just "obsessed" about the situation, and that THEY did not feel there was even a problem.


I Worked For Veterinarians Who Fixed Patella Problems

knee joint problems and slipping patellas are common in some breedsActually I worked for two vets so I have personally seen people come in with dogs that have bad patella problems, and when they found out the cost to fix their dogs, they ended up having the dogs destroyed, as they were unable to afford the surgery and did not want the dogs to suffer.


Years ago I went to a show in Ohio and that club held a health seminar for Toy Fox Terriers. A local vet came gave us an hour long talk on the "state of the breed" as he has seen it. At the end of the talk, there was a lengthy question and answer session, and several breeders seemed to be concerned about VwD in our breed.


After several questions on ii Von Willibrands Disease, the vet stopped us all, and said, "You know, you people should be much more concerned about the illnesses and conditions that keep your dogs from living normal active lives, like luxating patellas, and other orthopedic issues! VwD affects only a small number of dogs, and you can test for it, but the only way you will ever help your breed get rid of these patella problems is to routinely have them checked on all of your breeding dogs before you breed them!"


Nevertheless, check out the OFA database under TFTs...... In 1999, when I first began "bitching" about it to everyone I met, there were only a total of 13 TFTs  (7 males, 6 females, or something like that!). And 2 of those are mine..... It currently costs $15.00 to certify patellas....... It costs $40.00 to test for CHG. Puppies born with patella problems grow up to have worse problems, and may face euthanasia as a result. Puppies born with CHG (Congenital Hypothyroidism with Goiter) DIE..... Thankfully, they weed themselves out of the gene pool. Yes, the potential carriers of CHG are a problem but what about carriers of the contributing factors to patellar luxation? No one seems to care...


I can assure you, that if I were a pet buyer in the market for a TFT, I would MUCH rather buy one who is a carrier of CHG than one with luxating patellas. CHG does not affect pet puppy buyers but luxating patellas DO...! So why do some breeders feel that CHG is more important than a condition that affects mobility? I know of a couple of breeders who have had the surgery done on several of their TFTs, then continue to breed them....


I was recently at the Detroit Kennel Club show with friends who had entered their Toy Fox Terriers in the Misc. class. At my suggestion, we all made up flyers to pass out to the public (mine mentioned luxating patellas; theirs showed photos to sell future puppies... we wanted well-educated buyers!). Well, the response to our breed was ENORMOUS, to say the least. My friends said they handed out "over 100" flyers to very interested prospective puppy buyers, and that was only the first day of the 2 day show!


Perhaps the biggest challenge facing our breed today (2001) is not health problems but the fact that many breeders are in denial that these problems exist, even in their own lines. Oh well, maybe I am just "obsessed", or, as some breeders think, "nuts"! But I am concerned about my breed (Toy Fox Terriers) and I just don't want this issue to be forgotten!


In-depth, definitive information on CHG (Congenital Hypothyroid With Goiter) by John C. Fyfe, D.V.M., Ph.D. EST 1998 ©   Oct 2001U14111611908


If you are a breeder, don't miss top breeder and genetic researcher Diane Klumb's definitive work on how to eliminate any genetic defect within three generations includes cataracts, von Willibrands, copper toxicosis, and PRA.  Breeders now have many tools with which to eliminate hereditary problems.  One is common sense in preventing bone, joint, and ligament problems such as elbow and hip dysplasia and luxating patellas (knees) through nutrition and environment.



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CANINE CONGENITAL AND INHERITABLE DEFECTS/DISORDERS: Heritable incidence list of disorders as related to each breed.


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