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Doberman Pinscher Breed Standards

 

AKC & UKC Side-by-Side Comparison

American Kennel Club (AKC)

Working Group

Approved Feb 6, 1982 - Reformatted Nov 6, 1990

 

History

The breed originated in Germany, around 1900, taking its name from Louis Dobermann of Apolda, a tax collector, who desired a medium size dog to perform as a guard dog as well as companion. Breeds utilized to develop the Doberman Pinscher may have included, the old shorthaired shepherd, Rottweiler, Black and Tan Terrier and the German Pinscher.

 

The properly bred and trained Doberman has proved itself as friend and guardian, As is developed, its qualities of intelligence and ability to absorb and retain training brought it into demand as a police and war dog.

 

The Doberman Pinscher Club of America, founded in 1921 has continued to this day to foster the breed.

 

General Appearance

The appearance is that of a dog of medium size, with a body that is square. Compactly built, muscular and powerful, for great endurance and speed. Elegant in appearance, of proud carriage, reflecting great nobility and temperament. Energetic, watchful, determined, alert, fearless, loyal and obedient.

 

Size, Proportion, Substance

Height at the withers: Dogs 26 to 28 inches, ideal about 27 inches; Bitches 24 to 26 inches, ideal about 25 inches. The height, measured vertically from the ground to the highest point of the withers, equaling the length measured horizontally from the forechest to the rear projection of the upper thigh. Length of head, neck and legs in proportion to length and depth of body.

 

Head

Long and dry, resembling a blunt wedge in both frontal and profile views. When seen from the front, the head widens gradually toward the base of the ears in a practically unbroken line. Eyes almond shaped, moderately deep set, with vigorous, energetic expression. Iris, of uniform color, ranging from medium to darkest brown in black dogs; in reds, blues, and fawns the color of the iris blends with that of the markings, the darkest shade being preferable in every case. Ears normally cropped and carried erect. The upper attachment of the ear, when held erect, is on a level with the top of the skull.  Top of skull flat, turning with slight stop to bridge of muzzle, with muzzle line extending parallel to top line of skull. Cheeks flat and muscular. Nose solid black on black dogs, dark brown on red ones, dark gray on blue ones, dark tan on fawns. Lips lying close to jaws. Jaws full and powerful, well filled under the eyes.  Teeth strongly developed and white. Lower incisors upright and touching inside of upper incisors a true scissors bite. 42 correctly placed teeth, 22 in the lower, 20 in the upper jaw. Distemper teeth shall not be penalized. Disqualifying Faults; Overshot more than 3/16 of an inch. Undershot more than 1/8 of an inch. Four or more missing teeth.

 

Neck, Topline, Body

Neck proudly carried, well muscled and dry. Well arched, with nape of neck widening gradually toward body. Length of neck proportioned to body and head. Withers pronounced and forming the highest point of the body. Back short, firm, of sufficient width, and muscular at the loins, extending in a straight line from withers to the slightly rounded croup. Chest broad with forechest well defined. Ribs well sprung from the spine, but flattened in lower end to permit elbow clearance. Brisket reaching deep to the elbow. Belly well tucked up, extending in a curved line from the brisket. Loins wide and muscled. Hips broad and in proportion to body, breadth of hips being approximately equal to breadth of body at rib cage and shoulders. Tail docked at approximately second joint, appears to be a continuation of the spine, and is carried only slightly above the horizontal when the dog is alert.

 

Forequarters

Shoulder Blade - sloping forward and downward at a 45-degree angle to the ground meets the upper arm at an angle of 90 degrees. Length of shoulder blade and upper arm are equal. Height from elbow to withers approximately equals height from ground to elbow. Legs seen from front and side, perfectly straight and parallel to each other from elbow to pastern; muscled and sinewy, with heavy bone. In normal pose and when gaiting, the elbows lie close to the brisket. Pasterns firm and almost perpendicular to the ground. Dewclaws may be removed. Feet well arched, compact, and catlike, turning neither in nor out.

 

Hindquarters

The angulation of the hindquarters balances that of the forequarters. Hip Bone falls away from spinal column at an angle of about 30 degrees, producing a slightly rounded, well filled-out croup. Upper Shanks at right angles to the hip bones, are long, wide, and well muscled on both sides of thigh, with clearly defined stifles. Upper and lower shanks are of equal length. While the dog is at rest, hock to heel is perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, the legs are straight, parallel to each other, and wide enough apart to fit in with a properly built body. Dewclaws, if any, are generally removed. Cat feet as on front legs, turning neither in nor out.

 

Coat

Smooth-haired, short, hard, thick and close lying. Invisible gray undercoat on neck permissible

 

Color and Markings

Allowed Colors: Black, red, blue, and fawn (Isabella). Markings: Rust, sharply defined, appearing above each eye and on muzzle, throat and forechest, on all legs and feet, and below tail. White patch on chest, not exceeding square inch, permissible. Disqualifying Fault: Dogs not of an allowed color.

 

Gait

Free, balanced, and vigorous, with good reach in the forequarters and good driving power in the hindquarters. When trotting, there is strong rear-action drive. Each rear leg moves in line with the foreleg on the same side. Rear and front legs are thrown neither in nor out. Back remains strong and firm. When moving at a fast trot, a properly built dog will single-track.

 

Temperament

Energetic, watchful, determined, alert, fearless, loyal and obedient. The judge shall dismiss from the ring any shy or vicious Doberman. Shyness: A dog shall be judged fundamentally shy if, refusing to stand for examination, it shrinks away from the judge; if it fears an approach from the rear; if it shies at sudden and unusual noises to a marked degree. Viciousness: A dog that attacks or attempts to attack either the judge or its handler, is definitely vicious. An aggressive or belligerent attitude towards other dogs shall not be deemed viciousness.

 

Faults

The foregoing description is that of the ideal Doberman Pinscher. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation.

 

Disqualifications

Overshot more than 3/16 of an inch, undershot more than 1/8 of an inch. Four or more missing teeth.  Dogs not of an allowed color.

United Kennel Club (UKC)

Guardian Dog Group

Revised Mar 1, 2003

 

History

The Doberman Pinscher was developed in Germany toward the end of the 19th century. The Germans wanted to create a functional protection and guard dog that would also serve as a family companion. Dogs were selected for their courage and intelligence. One of the most well-known early breeders was Louis Dobermann, from whom the breed takes its name. It is uncertain how many and exactly which breeds were used to create the Doberman Pinscher. Most authorities include the Rottweiler, the old (and now extinct) German Shepherd, the German Pinscher, the Manchester Terrier, and the Greyhound. What is certain is that the breed assumed its present appearance fairly rapidly and was recognized by the German Kennel Club in 1899.

 

Dobermans began to appear in large numbers in the United States after World War I. The breed has been a successful working dog and a popular companion, excelling in police and military work.

 

The breed has been recognized by the United Kennel Club since the 1940's.

 

General Appearance

Early Doberman Pinschers were noted for their "sharp" temperaments but decades of careful breeding has produced a nearly ideal all-round working dog, intelligent, brave and loyal. Dobermans are alert and watchful dogs, and fearless when threatened with danger. Dobermans are energetic dogs, particularly when young, and benefit from regular training and exercise from the start. With high intelligence and confidence comes determination, so a Doberman owner must be prepared to be patient, firm and consistent in training. Dobermans excel in performance events, particularly in obedience and protection work.

 

Head - The head is long and dry, forming a blunt wedge when viewed from the front or side. Viewed from the front, the head gradually widens toward the base of the ears in a practically unbroken line. When viewed from the side, the skull and muzzle are equal in length, parallel to one another and joined by a slight, gently sloping stop. SKULL - The skull is flat and of moderate width. Cheeks are flat and muscular. MUZZLE - In profile, the muzzle should not slant back too suddenly from under the nose. Jaws are full, powerful and well filled under the eyes. Lips are tight and dry. TEETH - A full complement (42) of correctly placed, strongly developed teeth (22 in the lower jaw and 20 in the upper jaw) meet in a true scissors bite, lower incisors upright and touching inside of upper incisors. Discolored teeth are not to be penalized. NOSE - Solid colored. The nose is black in black dogs, dark brown in red dogs, dark gray in blue dogs and dark tan in fawn dogs. EYES - Eyes are almond shaped and moderately deep set. Eye colors range from medium to dark brown in black dogs. In blue, red and fawn dogs, the color of the iris should blend with that of the markings. Darker shades are always preferred. EARS - Cropped or uncropped equally acceptable. The cropped ear stands erect, set high enough on the head so that the inner attachment of the ear is level with the top of the skull. The uncropped ear is medium sized, triangular in shape and set high on the skull. The ear flap lays flat against the sides of the head.
Disqualifying faults: Overshot more than 3/16 of an inch; undershot more than 1/8 of an inch; three or more missing teeth.
Faults: Light, round or prominent eyes. Uncropped ears that fold improperly and stand out to the sides; fully erect uncropped ears.

 

Neck - The neck is smoothly muscled and well arched, widening gradually from the nape to the shoulders. Skin of throat is tight, free of dewlap. When the dog is standing, the neck is carried proudly with the head held high.
 

Forequarters - Shoulder blades slope forward and downward at a 45 degree angle to the ground meeting the upper arm at an angle of 90 degrees. Length of shoulder blade and upper arm are equal. Height from the elbow to the withers approximately equals height from the ground to the elbow. FORELEGS - When seen from the front or side, the legs are perfectly straight and parallel to each other from the elbow to pastern. The legs are well muscled and sinewy, with round, heavy bone proportionate to the body structure. Whether standing normally or moving, the elbows lie close to the brisket. Pasterns are firm and are nearly perpendicular to the ground, only slightly sloping.

 

Body - Viewed in profile, the body is compact and square. . The ribs extend well back and are well sprung from the spine, then flattening to form a deep body extending to the elbows. Viewed from above, the width of body at the point of shoulders and width of the muscles over the hips should be about the same. Withers are pronounced and form the highest point of the topline. The back is short, firm, level and moderately wide. The loin is short and muscular, but narrower than the rib cage. The croup is broad, muscular and slightly rounded. The topline extends in a straight line from the top of the withers to the top of the slightly rounded croup. Viewed from the front, the chest is deep, well filled in, and broad, allowing the brisket to extend down to the elbows without being pinched. Viewed from the side, the forechest is well defined, extending just slightly beyond the point of shoulder. The underline is formed by a brisket reaching deep to the elbow, flowing back parallel to the ground to the base of the eighth or ninth rib, then ascending and gradually shortening to give a marked tuck-up, and flowing into a short loin.
Faults: Exaggerated "ski slope" topline; exaggerated tuck-up.

 

Hindquarters - The angulation of the hindquarters is in balance with the angulation of the forequarters. The hip bone slopes downward from the spinal column at an angle of about 30 degrees, producing a slightly rounded, well filled out croup. Femurs are set at right angles to the hip bones.  HIND LEGS - The upper thighs are long, wide and well muscled on both sides. Upper and lower thighs are of about equal length. Stifles are clearly defined. While the dog is at rest, hock to heel is perpendicular to the ground. Viewed from the rear, the legs are straight and parallel to each other. The rear pasterns are well let down and perpendicular to the ground when viewed from any angle.
 

Feet - The feet are well arched, compact and catlike turning neither in nor out. Dewclaws are generally removed.

 

Tail - Tail is generally docked at approximately the second joint and appears to be a continuation of the spine. The tail is carried only slightly above the horizontal when the dog is alert.
Fault: Gay tail or terrier tail.

 

Coat - The coat is short, hard and thick. It is smooth and close lying. A barely visible gray undercoat on the neck is permissible.
Fault: Thin, sparse coat.

 

Color - There are four allowed colors: black, red, blue and fawn (Isabella). The "fawn" color is a dilute of brown and is a silvery beige color, more like the color of a Weimaraner than the traditional fawn found in Boxers or Great Danes. Markings are rust colored, sharply defined, located above each eye and on the muzzle, throat, forechest, all legs and feet, and below the tail.  A small white patch on the chest, not exceeding square inch is permissible.
Faults: Large, splashy markings; light or indistinct markings; absence of markings; markings that bleed into the solid color; white patch exceeding square inch.
Disqualifications: Any color other than listed above, albinism.

 

Size & Weight - The Doberman Pinscher is "medium" in all aspects of its physical characteristics. Ideal height in a mature male is 27 inches, with 26 to 28 inches being acceptable. Ideal height in a mature female is 25 inches with 24 to 26 inches being acceptable. The ideal Doberman Pinscher must have sufficient size and bone for strength and endurance but not so much as to impair its speed and agility.

 

Gait - When trotting, the gait is effortless, smooth, powerful and well coordinated, showing good but not exaggerated reach in front and drive behind. When moving, the dog's head is carried forward, not upward. The topline should remain firm during movement and there should be no sideways swinging of the ribcage or rolling over the shoulders. Viewed from any position, legs turn neither in nor out, nor do feet cross or interfere with each other. As speed increases, feet tend to converge toward center line of balance.

 

Temperament - Energetic, watchful, determined, alert, fearless, loyal and obedient. The judge shall dismiss from the ring any shy or vicious Doberman. Shyness: A dog shall be judged fundamentally shy if, refusing to stand for examination, it shrinks away from the judge; if it fears an approach from the rear; if it shies at sudden and unusual noises to a marked degree. Viciousness: A dog that attacks or attempts to attack either the judge or its handler, is definitely vicious. An aggressive or belligerent attitude towards other dogs shall not be deemed viciousness.

 

Faults - The foregoing description is that of the ideal Doberman Pinscher. Any deviation from the above described dog must be penalized to the extent of the deviation.

 

Disqualifications - (A dog with a Disqualification must not be considered for placement in a conformation event, and must be reported to UKC.)  Unilateral or bilateral cryptorchid.  Viciousness or extreme shyness.  Overshot more than 3/16 of an inch.  Undershot more than 1/8 of an inch.  Three or more missing teeth.  Any color other black, red, blue or fawn (Isabella). Albinism. The docking of tails and cropping of ears in America is legal and remains a personal choice. However, as an international registry, the United Kennel Club, Inc. is aware that the practices of cropping and docking have been forbidden in some countries. In light of these developments, the United Kennel Club, Inc. feels that no dog in any UKC event, including conformation, shall be penalized for a full tail or natural ears.

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